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Plagiarism will be detected by Copyscape. In general usage today, a “clock” refers to any device for measuring and displaying the time. Devices operating on several physical processes have been used over the millennia. Spring-driven clocks appeared during the 15th century. During the 15th and 16th centuries, clockmaking flourished.
A major stimulus to improving the accuracy and reliability of clocks was the importance of precise time-keeping for navigation. 20th century led to clocks with no clockwork parts at all. Analog clocks usually indicate time using angles. Digital clocks display a numeric representation of time.
24-hour notation and 12-hour notation. There are also clocks for the blind that have displays that can be read by using the sense of touch. Some of these are similar to normal analog displays, but are constructed so the hands can be felt without damaging them. The evolution of the technology of clocks continues today. Shadows cast by stationary objects move correspondingly, so their positions can be used to indicate the time of day. Sundials can be horizontal, vertical, or in other orientations. However, practical limitations, such as that sundials only work well on relatively clear days, and never during the night, encouraged the development of other techniques for measuring and displaying time.
The Jantar Mantar At Delhi and Jaipur are examples of sundials. They were built by Maharaja Jai Singh II. Both the candle clock and the incense clock work on the same principle wherein the consumption of resources is more or less constant allowing reasonably precise, and repeatable, estimates of time passages. Given their great antiquity, where and when they first existed is not known and perhaps unknowable. Some authors, however, write about water clocks appearing as early as 4000 BC in these regions of the world. Athens in the 1st century B.
Some water clock designs were developed independently and some knowledge was transferred through the spread of trade. Islamic civilization is credited with further advancing the accuracy of clocks with elaborate engineering. A book on his work described 50 mechanical devices in 6 categories, including water clocks. As well as telling the time, these grand clocks were symbols of status, grandeur and wealth of the Urtuq State. Spanish work from 1277 consisting of translations and paraphrases of Arabic works, is sometimes quoted as evidence for Muslim knowledge of a mechanical clock.
In Europe, between 1280 and 1320, there is an increase in the number of references to clocks and horologes in church records, and this probably indicates that a new type of clock mechanism had been devised. This power was controlled by some form of oscillating mechanism, probably derived from existing bell-ringing or alarm devices. The former purpose is administrative, the latter arises naturally given the scholarly interests in astronomy, science, astrology, and how these subjects integrated with the religious philosophy of the time. Simple clocks intended mainly for notification were installed in towers, and did not always require faces or hands. Canonical hours varied in length as the times of sunrise and sunset shifted. Over the next 30 years there are mentions of clocks at a number of ecclesiastical institutions in England, Italy, and France.