Some definitions of architecture define it as describing the capabilities and programming model of a computer but not a particular implementation. Mohammad Usman Khan, all bus architecture in computer organization pdf of the Machine Organization department in IBM’s main research center in 1959. Planning a Computer System: Project Stretch, ed.
Computer architecture, like other architecture, is the art of determining the needs of the user of a structure and then designing to meet those needs as effectively as possible within economic and technological constraints. Later, computer users came to use the term in many less-explicit ways. The earliest computer architectures were designed on paper and then directly built into the final hardware form. There are other types of computer architecture. Pin architecture functions are more flexible than ISA functions because external hardware can adapt to new encodings, or change from a pin to a message.
The term “architecture” fits, because the functions must be provided for compatible systems, even if the detailed method changes. The purpose is to design a computer that maximizes performance while keeping power consumption in check, costs low relative to the amount of expected performance, and is also very reliable. For this, many aspects are to be considered which includes instruction set design, functional organization, logic design, and implementation. The implementation involves integrated circuit design, packaging, power, and cooling. Optimization of the design requires familiarity with compilers, operating systems to logic design, and packaging.