This article is about the prehistoric culture. Native American culture centered in the buttermilk trail map pdf US state of Arizona.
Variant spellings in current, official usage include Hobokam, Huhugam, and Huhukam. Pima, indicates that Pima groups were present in the region at the end of the Hohokam sequence. In North America, the Hohokam were the only culture to rely on irrigation canals to water their crops since as early as 800, and their irrigation systems supported the largest population in the Southwest by 1300. Arizona as early as 2000 BCE. This prehistoric group from the Early Agricultural Period grew corn, lived year-round in sedentary villages, and developed sophisticated irrigation canals. Near East, Egypt, and China. These were constructed using relatively simple excavation tools, without the benefit of advanced engineering technologies, and achieved drops of a few feet per mile, balancing erosion and siltation.
Their reliance on agricultural strategies based on canal irrigation, vital in their less than hospitable desert environment and arid climate, provided the basis for the aggregation of rural populations into stable urban centers. Many features of early Hohokam domestic architecture, such as large square or rectangular pithouses, seem to have been transplanted relatively intact from early Formative Period examples first developed in the Tucson basin. But, by the seventh century, a distinct Hohokam architectural tradition emerged. Hohokam burial practices varied over time. Initially, the primary method employed was flexed inhumation, similar to the tradition used by the southern Mogollon culture, located immediately to the east. Patayan culture situated to the west along the Lower Colorado River. Although the particulars of the practice changed somewhat, the Hohokam cremation tradition remained dominant until around 1300.