Chlorination process in water treatment pdf

Solid particles entrained by the turbulence chlorination process in water treatment pdf moving water may be removed naturally by sedimentation in the still water of lakes and oceans. This includes particles 10 μm and greater. 001 µm and 1 µm depending on the method of quantification. The limit sedimentation velocity of a particle is its theoretical descending speed in clear and still water.

In a vertical ascending flow, the ascending water velocity is lower than the limit sedimentation velocity. In a longitudinal flow, the ratio of the length of the tank to the height of the tank is higher than the ratio of the water velocity to the limit sedimentation velocity. Suspended solids retained on a filter may remain in suspension if their specific gravity is similar to water while very dense particles passing through the filter may settle. Imhoff cone after water has settled for one hour.

Under specific conditions, the particle settling rate is directly proportional to the square of particle diameter and inversely proportional to liquid viscosity. The settling velocity, defined as the residence time taken for the particles to settle in the tank, enables the calculation of tank volume. Precise design and operation of a sedimentation tank is of high importance in order to keep the amount of sediment entering the diversion system to a minimum threshold by maintaining the transport system and stream stability to remove the sediment diverted from the system. This is achieved by reducing stream velocity as low as possible for the longest period of time possible. This is feasible by widening the approach channel and lowering its floor to reduce flow velocity thus allowing sediment to settle out of suspension due to gravity. The settling behavior of heavier particulates is also affected by the turbulence.

However, factors such as flow surges, wind shear, scour, and turbulence reduce the effectiveness of settling. To compensate for these less than ideal conditions, it is recommended doubling the area calculated by the previous equation. It is also important to equalize flow distribution at each point across the cross-section of the basin. Poor inlet and outlet designs can produce extremely poor flow characteristics for sedimentation.

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