Typical adult learning theories encompass the basic concepts of behavioral change and constructivist learning theory piaget pdf. From there, complexities begin to diverge specific theories and concepts in an eclectic barrage of inferences. Merriam and Caffarella, 1999, p. According to the authors, Piaget contends that normal children will reach the final stage of development, which is the stage of formal operations, between the age of twelve and fifteen.
Piaget’s fourth stage, formal operations, be renamed the problem-solving stage. Arlin’s hypothesized fifth stage was the problem-finding stage. This stage focuses on problem discovery. The most common treatments of the research of these areas of self-directed adult learning are learning projects, qualitative studies, and quantitative measures.