The Chinese were among the first civilizations to refine oil. During the first century AD, the Chinese were among the first peoples to refine oil for use as an energy source. Fierce Oil Workshop”, distillation operation and applications pdf established in the city of Kaifeng to produce refined oil for the Song military as a weapon.
The workshop was one of the world’s earliest oil refining factories where thousands of people worked to produce Chinese oil powered weaponry. All of the fractions are processed further in other refining units. Since the lighter liquid products are in great demand for use in internal combustion engines, a modern refinery will convert heavy hydrocarbons and lighter gaseous elements into these higher value products. Once separated and purified of any contaminants and impurities, the fuel or lubricant can be sold without further processing. These are not usually transported but instead are blended or processed further on-site.
Chemical plants are thus often adjacent to oil refineries or a number of further chemical processes are integrated into it. The rather large heat energy freed by this process is directly used in the other parts of the refinery. Often an electrical power plant is combined into the whole refinery process to take up the excess heat. Atmospheric distillation unit distills crude oil into fractions. Must hydrotreat the naphtha before sending to a catalytic reformer unit.
The reformate has higher content of aromatics and cyclic hydrocarbons. An important byproduct of a reformer is hydrogen released during the catalyst reaction. The hydrogen is used either in the hydrotreaters or the hydrocracker. Alternative processes for removing mercaptans are known, e. There are also other uses for dimerization. Gasoline produced through dimerization is highly unsaturated and very reactive.
It tends spontaneously to form gums. For this reason the effluent from the dimerization need to be blended into the finished gasoline pool immediately or hydrogenated. Liquified gas storage vessels store propane and similar gaseous fuels at pressure sufficient to maintain them in liquid form. The diagram also does not include any of the usual refinery facilities providing utilities such as steam, cooling water, and electric power as well as storage tanks for crude oil feedstock and for intermediate products and end products. There are many process configurations other than that depicted above. The CDU distills the incoming crude oil into various fractions of different boiling ranges, each of which are then processed further in the other refinery processing units. Below is a schematic flow diagram of a typical crude oil distillation unit.
The incoming crude oil is preheated by exchanging heat with some of the hot, distilled fractions and other streams. Following the desalter, the crude oil is further heated by exchanging heat with some of the hot, distilled fractions and other streams. C and routed into the bottom of the distillation unit. The cooling and condensing of the distillation tower overhead is provided partially by exchanging heat with the incoming crude oil and partially by either an air-cooled or water-cooled condenser.
Additional heat is removed from the distillation column by a pumparound system as shown in the diagram below. As shown in the flow diagram, the overhead distillate fraction from the distillation column is naphtha. Schematic flow diagram of a typical crude oil distillation unit as used in petroleum crude oil refineries. May be shipped in bulk to a site to prepare as packaged blocks.