General layout of electricity networks. Voltages and electrical power quality pdf of electrical lines are typical for Germany and other European systems.
As it exits the substation, it enters the distribution wiring. Early electric energy was produced near the device or service requiring that energy. In the industrialized world, cities had networks of piped gas, used for lighting. In the 1880s electric lighting soon became advantageous compared to gas lighting. With long distance power transmission it became possible to interconnect stations to balance load and improve load factors. 1912 had developed into the largest integrated power system in Europe. Merz was appointed head of a Parliamentary Committee and his findings led to the Williamson Report of 1918, which in turn created the Electricity Supply Bill of 1919.
The bill was the first step towards an integrated electricity system. Act of 1926 led to the setting up of the National Grid. In the United States in the 1920s, utilities formed joint-operations to share peak load coverage and backup power. No longer were electric utilities built as vertical monopolies, where generation, transmission and distribution were handled by a single company. Now, the three stages could be split among various companies, in an effort to provide fair accessibility to high voltage transmission.
1919, and 36,528 in 1938. At the same time, the nearby networks began to interconnect: Paris in 1907 at 12kV, the Pyrénées in 1923 at 150 kV, and finally almost all of the country interconnected in 1938 at 220 kV. By 1946, the grid is the world’s most dense. The frequency was standardized at 50 Hz, and the 225kV network replaces 110 and 120. During the 1970s, the 400kV network, the new European standard, is implemented. Europe – red are existing links, green are under construction, and blue are proposed. Map of Japan’s electricity transmission network, showing differing systems between regions.