Could anyone explain what makes a Carbon Steel HIC Resistant? What makes a Carbon Steel HIC Resistant? Best Of All, It’heat resistant steel pdf Free!
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I am involved in a relatively small fabrication in the UK, where the materials of construction are specified as ASTM A333, A350 LF2, P355, A420 WPL6 but the materials are also specified to be “HIC resistant Carbon Steel”. What steps do we need to take to ensure this requirement is met? RE: What makes a Carbon Steel HIC Resistant? Without getting into too much detail, the following publication by Bethlehem Lukens describes their HIC-Tested pressure vessel plate steels. 1 member likes this post! Hardness is the single key factor that must be controlled. I would say HRC 22 max.
A corresponding DIN standard is DIN EN 10229. This number is a guideline, but low sulfur, low segregation, and low grain size all allow higher hardness material to be used. Failure is possible at lower hardness levels if microstructure causes lower toughness. Also this threshold decreases to lower hardness as temperature decreases. HIC can occur remote from welds and is typically associated with the presence of pancake shaped sulfide stringers.
Low sulfur and inclusion shape control are the most common method of preventing HIC. I should have added that even though sulfide stress cracking and the related hardness limit is ofetn a welding issue addressed through carbon equivalent limits and appropriate welding procedures, the cracking problem can certainly occur remote from welds if the hardness is too high and adequate stresses are present. As a matter of fact, through this method the typically MnS sulfide stringers are then tranformed into globular shape, and this morphology is really advantageous for HIC resistance. In order to have a correct and balanced heat analysis for this purpose, one should require the ratio of Wght. S to be in the range of 2 to 3. Please let us know here why this post is inappropriate.
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Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. New Haven, Connecticut, appears to have been the earliest person to use the term ‘radiator’ to mean a heating appliance in an 1834 patent for a stove with a heat exchanger which then radiated heat. As domestic safety and the supply from water heaters keeps temperatures relatively low, radiation is inefficient in comparison to convection. Convection heaters also work differently to electric radiators in that they disperse heat differently. A hot-water radiator consists of a sealed hollow metal container filled with hot water by gravity feed, a pressure pump, or convection. As it gives out heat, the hot water cools and sinks to the bottom of the radiator and is forced out of a pipe at the other end. They consist of copper pipes which have aluminium fins to increase their surface area.
These conduction boiler systems use conduction to transfer heat from the water into the metal radiators or convectors. The radiators are designed to heat the air in the room using convection to transfer heat from the radiators to the surrounding air. They do this by drawing cool air in at the bottom, warming the air as it passes over the radiator fins, and discharging the heated air at the top. This sets up convective loops of air movement within a room. If the register is blocked either from above or below, this air movement is prevented, and the heater will not work. Baseboard heating systems are sometimes fitted with moveable covers to allow the resident to fine-tune heating by room, much like air registers in a central air system.