History of medieval india by satish chandra pdf

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Islam spread across large parts of the subcontinent. Arab army reached the frontier of India by land. Mughira was defeated and killed at Debal. Uthman, saying that had the Arabs lost any men the Caliph would have killed an equal number of men from Utham’s tribe in retaliation.

Arab campaigns in the Indian Subcontinent. A generic representation, not to exact scale. The Frontier of Al Hind”. The first clash between a ruler of an Indian kingdom and the Arabs took place in 643 AD, when Arab forces defeated Rutbil, King of Zabulistan in Sistan.

Arabs led by Suhail b. Indian soil and the Arabs returned home. Khurasan in 650 AD, and his general Rabi b. Arab conquests now bordered the Kingdoms of Kapisa, Zabul and Sindh in modern-day Afghanistan and Pakistan. Affan sanctioned an attack against Makran in 652 AD, and sent a recon mission to Sindh in 653 AD. The mission described Makran as inhospitable, and Caliph Uthman, probably assuming the country beyond was much worse, forbade any further incursions into India.

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