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API and a reservoir viscosity of no more than 10,000 centipoise”. In ancient Egypt, the use of bitumen was important in preparing Egyptian mummies. The Mesopotamians used the bitumen for waterproofing boats and buildings. 19th and early 20th century. Oil sands are now an alternative to conventional crude oil.
Fur trader Peter Pond paddled down the Clearwater River to Athabasca in 1778, saw the deposits and wrote of “springs of bitumen that flow along the ground. 20 feet long may be inserted without the least resistance. The commercial possibilities of Canada’s vast oil sands were realized early by Canadian government researchers. The banks of the Athabasca would furnish an inexhaustible supply of fuel the material occurs in such enormous quantities that a profitable means of extracting oilmay be found”. Edmonton, as well as in other places. 1928, he patented the first commercial hot water separation process. In 1927 he formed the International Bitumen Company and in 1930 built a small hot-water separation plant based on Clark’s design.