Structure and function of kidney pdf

They structure and function of kidney pdf pass down along the sides of the pelvis, and finally curve forwards and enter the bladder from its left and right sides at the back of the bladder. This is classically depicted as running “posteroinferiorly on the lateral walls of the pelvis and then curve anteromedially to enter the bladder”. The ureters has an arterial supply which varies along its course.

Within the periureteral adventitia these arteries extensively anastomose thus permitting surgical mobilization of the ureter without compromising the vascular supply as long as the adventitia is not stripped. Lymphatic and venous drainage mostly parallels that of the arterial supply. The primary sensation to the ureters is provided by nerves that come from T12-L2 segments of the spinal cord. Below the epithelium, a Lamina Propria exists. The Lamina Propria is made up of loose connective tissue with many elastic fibers interspersed with blood vessels, veins and lymphatics.

The ureter is surrounded by two muscular layers, an inner longitudinal layer of muscle, and an outer circular or spiral layer of muscle. During the embryologic development of the kidney, the ureteropelvic junction is the last part of the ureter to become patent. The ureter is injured in 0. Vesicoureteral reflux may be treated surgically, and is believed to have a genetic basis. Lowe, Alan Stevens, James S.

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