Eastern Europe in the 12th and 13th centuries when the Khazar Empire the act of creation arthur koestler pdf collapsing. 12th and 13th centuries when the Khazar Empire was collapsing.
At the end of the book’s last chapter, Koestler summarizes its content and his intentions as follows: “In Part One of this book I have attempted to trace the history of the Khazar Empire based on the scant existing sources. In Part Two, Chapters V-VII, I have compiled the historical evidence which indicates that the bulk of Eastern Jewry — and hence of world Jewry — is of Khazar-Turkish, rather than Semitic, origin. In the last chapter I have tried to show that the evidence from anthropology concurs with history in refuting the popular belief in a Jewish race descended from the biblical tribe. Koestler himself describes as a main source.
Golden himself described the book as “controversial”, stating it contained “sweeping claims of Khazar legacy and influence”. Khazars, the racial basis for anti-Semitism would be removed and anti-Semitism itself could disappear”. Koestler’s desire to connect Ashkenazi Jews with Khazars was “based on a tacit belief that the intellectual brilliance of and international influence of Hungarians and Jews, especially Hungarian Jews or Jewish-Hungarians, was due to some unexplained but clearly ancient affinity between the two peoples”. Hebrew readers had no access to the book itself for many years, learning about it only through the venomous denunciations”. Evan Goldstein states “Sand suggests that those who attacked Koestler’s book did so not because it lacked merit, but because the critics were cowards and ideologues.