This article is about the political scientist. 1960s, with serious negative consequences. Italy which drew great scholarly attention for its argument that the success of the end of liberalism lowi pdf depends in large part on the horizontal bonds that make up social capital. Putnam writes that northern Italy’s history of community, guilds, clubs, and choral societies led to greater civic involvement and greater economic prosperity.
Meanwhile, the agrarian society of Southern Italy is less prosperous economically and democratically because of less social capital. Social capital, which Putnam defines as “networks and norms of civic engagement,” allows members of a community to trust one another. When community members trust one another, trade, money-lending, and democracy flourish. Over the last decade and a half, the United States had seen an increase in bowlers but a decrease in bowling leagues.
Putnam makes a distinction between two kinds of social capital: bonding capital and bridging capital. Bonding occurs when you are socializing with people who are like you: same age, same race, same religion, and so on. But in order to create peaceful societies in a diverse multi-ethnic country, one needs to have a second kind of social capital: bridging. Bridging is what you do when you make friends with people who are not like you, like supporters of another football team. Putnam argues that those two kinds of social capital, bonding and bridging, do strengthen each other. Consequently, with the decline of the bonding capital mentioned above inevitably comes the decline of the bridging capital leading to greater ethnic tensions. A less statist society, a more free-market society, because we had real strength in the area of social capital and we had relatively high levels of social trust.
We sort of did trust one another, not perfectly, of course, but we did. Not compared to other countries. And all that is declining, and I began to worry, ‘Well, gee, isn’t that going to be a problem, if our system is built for one kind of people and one kind of community, and now we’ve got a different one. Maybe it’s not going to work so well. 1960s are a misleading baseline because the era had an unusually high number of traditional organizations. In contrast, contact theory proposes that distrust will decline as members of different ethnic groups get to know and interact with each other.
Putnam describes people of all races, sex, socioeconomic statuses, and ages as “hunkering down,” avoiding engagement with their local community—both among different ethnic groups and within their own ethnic group. Lower confidence in local government, local leaders and the local news media. Lower frequency of registering to vote, but more interest and knowledge about politics and more participation in protest marches and social reform groups. Higher political advocacy, but lower expectations that it will bring about a desirable result. Less likelihood of working on a community project.
Less likelihood of giving to charity or volunteering. Fewer close friends and confidants. Less happiness and lower perceived quality of life. Putnam has been criticized for the lag between his initial study and his publication of his article.
Academics aren’t supposed to withhold negative data until they can suggest antidotes to their findings. On the other hand, Putnam did release the data in 2001 and publicized this fact. The proposals that the paper contains are located in a section called “Becoming Comfortable with Diversity” at the end of his article. Putnam concludes the gloomy facts with a stern pep talk”.