Title page of the oldest manuscript: Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, Gr. They consider the natures of existing regimes and the republic plato pdf free propose a series of different, hypothetical cities in comparison. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Cephalus defines justice as giving what is owed.
Polemarchus says justice is “the art which gives good to friends and evil to enemies”. Thrasymachus proclaims “justice is nothing else than the interest of the stronger”. Socrates overturns their definitions and says that it is your advantage to be just and disadvantage to be unjust. Socrates believes he has answered Thrasymachus and is done with the discussion of justice. Thrasymachus for the sake of furthering the discussion. Glaucon gives a speech in which he argues first that the origin of justice was in social contracts aimed at preventing one from suffering injustice without having the ability to take revenge, second that all those who practice justice do so unwillingly and out of fear of punishment, and third that the life of the unjust man is far more blessed than that of the just man. Glaucon would like Socrates to prove that justice is not only desirable, but that it belongs to the highest class of desirable things: those desired both for their own sake and their consequences.
After Glaucon’s speech, Adeimantus adds that, in this thought experiment, the unjust should not fear any sort of divine judgement in the afterlife, since the very poets who wrote about such judgement also wrote that the gods would grant forgiveness to those humans who made ample religious sacrifice. Adeimantus demonstrates his reason by drawing two detailed portraits, that the unjust man could grow wealthy by injustice, devoting a percentage of this gain to religious sacrifices, thus rendering him innocent in the eyes of the gods. Socrates suggests that they look for justice in a city rather than in an individual man. After attributing the origin of society to the individual not being self-sufficient and having many needs which he cannot supply himself, they go on to describe the development of the city. Socrates first describes the “healthy state”, but Glaucon asks him to describe “a city of pigs”, as he found little difference between the two. He then goes on to describe the luxurious city, which he calls “a fevered state”. This requires a guardian class to defend and attack on its account.