Learn” and “Learned” redirect here. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Evidence that learning has occurred may be seen in changes in behavior from simple vark learning styles pdf complex.
The changes induced by learning often last a lifetime, and it is hard to distinguish learned material that seems to be “lost” from that which cannot be retrieved. Human learning begins before birth and continues until death as a consequence of ongoing interactions between person and environment. Research in such fields has led to the identification of various sorts of learning. Play has been approached by several theorists as the first form of learning. Children experiment with the world, learn the rules, and learn to interact through play. The response is typically a reflex or unconditioned response. Thus, habituation must be distinguished from extinction, which is an associative process.
In operant extinction, for example, a response declines because it is no longer followed by reward. Soon the birds react less, showing habituation. An everyday example of this mechanism is the repeated tonic stimulation of peripheral nerves that occurs if a person rubs their arm continuously. After a while, this stimulation creates a warm sensation that eventually turns painful. The pain results from the progressively amplified synaptic response of the peripheral nerves warning that the stimulation is harmful.
Sensitisation is thought to underlie both adaptive as well as maladaptive learning processes in the organism. Since understanding information is the key aspect of learning, it is important for learners to recognize what they understand and what they do not. By doing so, they can monitor their own mastery of subjects. Active learning encourages learners to have an internal dialogue in which they verbalize understandings. This and other meta-cognitive strategies can be taught to a child over time. In addition, learners have more incentive to learn when they have control over not only how they learn but also what they learn.
In classical conditioning a previously neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with a reflex eliciting stimulus until eventually the neutral stimulus elicits a response on its own. In operant conditioning, a behavior that is reinforced or punished in the presence of a stimulus becomes more or less likely to occur in the presence of that stimulus. Pavlov fed his dogs meat powder, which naturally made the dogs salivate—salivating is a reflexive response to the meat powder. Pavlov rang a bell before presenting the meat powder. The first time Pavlov rang the bell, the neutral stimulus, the dogs did not salivate, but once he put the meat powder in their mouths they began to salivate. After numerous pairings of bell and food, the dogs learned that the bell signaled that food was about to come, and began to salivate when they heard the bell. Classical conditioning has been demonstrated in many species.